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The innovative potential of cell phone technology in an evolutionary perspective Since its inception billions of years ago, the evolution of life on earth has been shaped by two highly consistent physical constraints: The first of these conditions implies that the diversification of living forms and behavior takes place mainly as a differentiation within physical space.
In operational terms, this means that tight correlations exist between spatial location and the prevalence of particular ecosystems, species and breeds. On the human level, this is reflected in racial, ethnic-linguistic and many other differences along geographical lines - as well as in the high salience of face-to-face gatherings for the maintenance of social collectivities and institutions and for the satisfaction of physiological and psychological individual needs.
The second constraint can be easily substantiated by the empirical regularity that more advanced levels of interdependence and organization are only found among organisms that co-exist for longer periods at the same physical locations. Of course, widespread interaction also occurs within moving herds of antelopes, swarms of Sjsu peer connections or schools of fish, but they tend to result in rather simple segmentary structures - not to be compared with the elaborated societies realized by stationary bees, ants or primate apes.
On the level of human societies, the same regularity can be convincingly demonstrated by comparing nomadic and sedentary populations.
In more recent times, the crucial importance of tightly organized factories and densely populated urban areas for the development of industrialized societies has again demonstrated that the achievement of higher levels of societal complexity and economic production is still based the physical proximity of many human individuals in very stable locations.
The restraining effects of these two physical factors seem to increase in the course of biological and socio-cultural evolution, because they collide more and more with some other outcomes of this same evolution: Thus, animals are much more affected than plants, because they can communicate among each other, and because the need to be physically near and stationary clashes with another most valuable capacity for survival and active adaptation: In fact, the functional significance of locomotion is much degraded by the fact that a while moving, communicative potentials are minimized or even totally suspended, b as a result of bodily movement, spatial distances are created which are incompatible with the maintenance of communicative relations.
On the human level, such incompatibilities are amplified insofar as in comparison to animals: Thus, while the increase in population density has certainly facilitated primary interpersonal communications by furthering spatial proximitiesincrements in locomotion have again reduced it, because whenever individuals are walking on streets, driving on roads, cruising on ships or flying in planes, they are trapped in public traffic orders characterized by highly restricted and standardized codes of communication.
Evidently, the unavailability of translocal communication has not prevented human beings from establishing interpersonal bonds of solidarity and cooperation between geographically distant local groups e. However, the interaction and internal development of all these translocal aggregations could not be based on the primary medium on which all social life is based: It had instead to be based on two other foundations: In modern societies individuals are highly accustomed to leading lives characterized by constant painful discrepancies between spatial and social distance.
On the one hand, they have to tolerate extreme spatial proximity with masses of totally indifferent others e. Certainly, the landline phone has eliminated the prerequisite of physical proximity, but on the other hand it has preserved or even reinforced the need to stay at specific places.
While there are conditions under which individuals on the move are at least able to continue face-to-face interaction e. Thus, the main function of fixed telephones was to reinforce the social integration of stable sedentary settings like cities or bureaucratic organizations: Apart from easing the violation of laws and the realisation of exchanges without leaving traces Aronson, Therefore, the telephone plays a role in the urban concentration of financial and business activities.
The telephone helped in the development of larger metropolitan systems with a more diversified and complex structure it is also a central element in the work organisation and communication inside the skyscrapers, the symbols of corporate capitalism that arose at the beginning of the 20th century.
Wireless technologies are certainly at the root of all innovations that make communication compatible with spatial mobility. Remarkably, this portability was first realized for receiving-only devices, while transmission technologies e.
Seen in this very broad evolutionary perspective, the significance of the mobile phone lies in empowering people to engage in communication, which is at the same time free from the constraints of physical proximity and spatial immobility.SJSU Peer Connections Peer Connections’ free tutoring and mentoring is designed to assist students in the development of their full academic potential and to inspire them to become independent learners.
By Barry Zepel. In the nearly four years since “Spartan Pride” became one of the five core areas of the university’s Vision Strategic Plan, San Jose State Alumni Association staff members have worked to engage and connect the various sectors that make up the campus community.
Nov 01, · Research Resources.
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Welcome to Peer Connections Peer Connections offers free mentoring, tutoring, and supplemental instruction services for students at SJSU. Peer Educators are students just like you; they understand the triumphs and challenges of being a .