The continent of Africa has constantly drawn global attention, most especially for both human and natural evils.
The privilege of a higher education, especially outside Africa, broadened my original horizon and encouraged me to focus on the environment, women and development in order to improve the quality of life of people in my country in particular and in the African region in general.
The Green Belt Movement is a national, indigenous and grassroots organisation, whose activities are implemented mostly by women.
Its mandate is environmental and the main activity is to plant trees and prioritize the felt needs of communities. The Movement therefore, addresses the issues of woodfuel, both for the rural populations and the urban poor, the need for fencing and building materials, the rampant malnutrition and hunger, the need to protect forests, water catchment areas, open spaces in urban centres and the need to improve the low economic status of women.
In the process this leads to activities which help to transfer farming techniques, knowledge and tools to women. Also to enhance leadership capacity of the participants. The Movement informs and educates participants about the linkages between degradation of the environment and development policies.
It encourages women to create jobs, prevent soil loss, slow the processes of desertification, loss of bio-diversity and plant and to eat indigenous foodcrops. The organisation tries to empower women in particular and the civil society in general so that individuals can take action and break the vicious circle of poverty and underdevelopment.
The Movement approaches development from the bottom and moves upwards to reach those who plan and execute the large-scale development models whose benefits hardly ever trickle down to the poor. The Movement has no blue print, preferring to rely on a trial and error approach which adopts what works and quickly drops what does not.
It calls upon the creative energies of the ordinary local women, on their expertise, knowledge and capabilities.
It addresses both the symptoms and the causes of environmental degradation at community level, teaches the community members to recognize and differentiate between the causes and symptoms and to discern the linkages between them. It encourages participants to develop expertise in their work and not be limited by their illiteracy or low level of formal education.
The Movement also identifies and subsequently educates citizens about economic and political issues which form important linkages with environmental concerns and which are likely to have a negative impact on the environment. This is done through seminars, workshops and exchange visits.
It also addresses the role of the civil society in protecting the environment, developing a democratic culture, pursuing participatory development, promoting accountable and responsible governance, which puts its people first, protecting human rights and encouraging respect for the rule of law.
In the course of this involvement the Movement has identified major bottlenecks which frustrate development efforts in Africa and which are important to this conference. Although we have shared these thoughts with the United Nations World Hearings on Development in New York in June,and other important fora, we see the need to repeat them at this conference.
We feel that unless these bottlenecks, and others, are dealt with it may be difficult to help Africa because these bottlenecks will continue to keep the majority of the African people in the background of their development and political agenda irrespective of the amount of aid, grants and experts sent to Africa to alleviate poverty and underdevelopment.
Perhaps none of the bottlenecks mentioned here are new. The list is also not exhaustive.
But it is recommended that these bottlenecks be considered if there be genuine desire to help Africa and her peoples. There is no list of remedies attached to the bottlenecks. The first step is to accept that they are the bottlenecks and identify their source.The African continent has come a long way during the last fifty years from a development perspective.
Literacy levels, health sector, infrastructure, growth of GDP, food security, security among. CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT AND CONCEPTS FOR DEVELOPMENT. AN INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENT THEORIES By DR. FRITHJOF KUHNEN* The Journal of Institute of Development Development Studies, Studies, NWFP Agricultural Vol.
VIII, , University, Peshawar. INTRODUCTION.
In view of the resilience of Africa s underdevelopment, what do Africans make of their determined aspirations for development? The continent of Africa has constantly drawn global attention, most especially for both human and natural evils.
Click to donate and then view the entire Africa and Solutions to the Underdevelopment Problem essay, term paper or book report for FREE. Search for other Africa and Solutions to the Underdevelopment Problem essays, term papers and book reports. Chapter 10 Africa and the Remedies to the Problem of underdevelopment Muhammed A.
Yinusa; Joseph A.
Oluyemi & Raji Abdullateef Introduction Africa is considered to be the oldest continent in the world and records some of the earliest form of civilization ever in human history even before some other continents of the world.
How Europe Underdeveloped Africa is classic of anti-imperialist literature. At the core is the concept of development and contemporary Marxism as the main theoretical underpinning.
Both concept and theory is utilized to explore, evaluate and explain the historical exploitation and the damage done to African development.