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After the unexpected death of the childless David II, Robert Stewart, the first of the Stewart later Stuart monarchs, came to the throne in Despite his relatively venerable age of 55, his son, John, Earl of Carrickgrew impatient and assumed the reins of government as Lord Lieutenant.
A border incursion into England led to the victory at Otterburn inbut at the cost of the life of John's ally James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas. This, along with Carrick having suffered a debilitating horse kick, led to a shift in power to his brother Robert Stewart, Earl of Fifewho now was appointed as Lieutenant in his place.
However, the English captured him en route and he spent the next 18 years as a prisoner held for ransom. James Focus questions of the middle ages Murdoch and two of his sons tried and then executed with further enforcement of his authority by more arrests and forfeiture of lands.
In he attempted to regain one of the major border fortresses still in English hands at Roxburghbut the siege ended in a humiliating defeat.
He was murdered by discontented council member Robert Graham and his co-conspirators near the Blackfriars church, Perth in The assassination left the king's seven-year-old son to reign as James II. After the execution of a number of suspected conspirators, leadership fell to Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Douglasas lieutenant-general of the realm.
A conspiracy to break the power of the Douglas family led to the "Black Dinner" at Edinburgh Castle inwhich saw the judicial murder of the young William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas and his brother by Livingstone and Crichton.
The main beneficiary was the victims' great uncle James Douglas, Earl of Avondale who became the 7th Earl of Douglas and emerged as the main power in the government.
This opened an intermittent civil war as James attempted to seize Douglas lands, punctuated by a series of humiliating reversals. Gradually James managed to win over the allies of the Douglases with offers of lands, titles and offices and the Douglases' forces were finally defeated at the Battle of Arkinholm on 12 May He travelled the country dispensing justice and some of the unpopular policies of the following reign, such as the sale of pardons, may have originated in this period.
His attempt to take Roxburgh from the English in succeeded, but at the cost of his life as he was killed by an exploding artillery piece. The Boyd family, led by Robert, Lord Boydemerged as the leading force in the government, making themselves unpopular through self-aggrandisement, with Lord Robert's son Thomas being made Earl of Arran and marrying the king's sister, Mary.
While Robert and Thomas were out of the country in the king asserted his control, executing members of the Boyd family. Mar died suspiciously in and his estates were forfeited and possibly given to a royal favouriteRobert Cochrane.
Albany fled to France inaccused of treason. By this point the alliance with England was failing and from there was intermittent war, followed by a full-scale invasion of Scotland two years later, led by the Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard IIIand accompanied by Albany.
James was imprisoned by his own subjects in Edinburgh Castleand Albany was established as lieutenant-general. Having taken Berwick-upon-Tweed the English retreated and Albany's government began to collapse forcing him to flee.
Despite conspiracies and more attempts at invasion, James was able to regain power. However, the king managed to alienate the barons, refusing to travel for the implementation of justice, preferring to be resident in Edinburgh, he debased the coinage, probably creating a financial crisis, he continued to pursue an English alliance and dismissed key supporters, including his Chancellor Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyllbecoming estranged from his wife, Margaret of Denmarkand his son James.
Matters came to a head in when he faced an army raised by the disaffected nobles, and many former councillors, acting in the name of the prince as James IV. He was defeated at the Battle of Sauchieburn and killed. James IV was 15 when he came to the throne, but soon proved a capable and independent minded ruler, whose reign is often considered to have seen a flowering of Scottish culture under the influence of the European Renaissance.
He forced through the forfeiture of the lands of the last lord John MacDonald inbacking Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly 's power in the region and launching a series of naval campaigns and sieges that resulted in the capture or exile of his rivals by Print Guilds in Western Culture and Economies in the High Middle Ages Worksheet 1.
Identify the most accurate interpretation of the similarity between medieval guilds . The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around and lasted until around The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and were followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention, ended around Key historical trends of the High Middle Ages include the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which .
Middle ages vs Renaissance The middle ages and the renaissance were two time periods which were very different, yet similar in some ways. The middle ages was an era of European history caused by a gradual decline in the Roman Empire. Early Middle Ages questions and answers.
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The dichotomous topics, 'poverty and prosperity', 'rich and poor', continue to interest scholars, politicians, and philosophers while also appealing to a wide general audience, and are particularly of interest today.