But the aim of my narrative is not to write of the casual doings of distinguished men, but their main achievements.
So, according to a teleological theory, consequences always play some part, be it small or large, in the determination of what one should or should not do. Not all teleological theories are consequentialist.
John Rawls' theory of justice is teleological, but not consequentialist because it claims that consequences are only part of what must be considered when determining what policy is morally just. Rawls Benefits - 1.
By allowing for the consideration of consequences, teleological theories can adapt to different circumstances and situations. A key question in consequentialist theory is how to measure the moral worth of the consequences. Consequences can be good, neutral, or evil. Another relevant question is which consequences count intended or actual.
If only actual consequences count, then do all consequences count? All of these considerations go into shaping the ethical theory.
So they judged individual an action to be good or bad depending on the actual consequences of that action. Bentham defined good as pleasure and evil as pain.
Bentham Thus when choosing an action, according to Bentham, one should the action which produces the greatest amount of pleasure compared to pain for all affected. Mill differed from Bentham in that he believed that happiness and unhappiness were the basis for good and evil.
Mill Under his evaluation then, while pleasure and pain were important considerations, they were only the basic minimum. This sets up an ability for Mill to claim that consequences to more sentient beings may be more important than those to less sentient beings and to characterize some pleasures as higher than others.
Consequentialism is grounded in actual effect. So, moral action always improves life on earth in some manner. Acting morally can improve your lot in life. So, there is an incentive to act morally even if you do not believe in an afterlife.
Consequentialist theories are often attentive to the particulars of the situation. These theories will allow for exceptions to the rule when warranted by the outcome. Utilitarianism follows the cause and effect reasoning in science. It can be proven wrong or right by referring to empirical evidence, instead of a theoretical ideal.
All sentient beings understand pain and pleasure. Thus many have claimed that utilitarianism is transcultural. On a related note, utilitarianism avoids the charge of speciesism in ethical theory by using a moral foundation that is shared by other species, thus requiring their consideration.
Consequences are difficult to predict. Your actions may have good intentions and a high probability of causing good results.
But, if something happens and the consequences are actually bad, then your action was morally wrong.And that’s really the issue. “Believing in meritocracy” doesn’t mean “believing in the best people getting the best jobs.” That’s a strawman. He/she is not, unlike the drunk driver, a threat to the safety of others by mere virtue of being drunk and vulnerable.
I was not aware of the law regarding consent to sex, but I don't view it as a loss of autonomy. /r/philosophy is intended for philosophical material and discussion. Please direct all questions to /r/askphilosophy. Post titles cannot be questions and must describe the philosophical content of .
See also the section The courage of the bullfighters, which includes material on the courage of the rock climbers and mountaineers, including the remarkable achievements of the free climber Alex benjaminpohle.com climbers climb without a rope or any other safety equipment.
If they fall, almost always they die. This is a sprawling, very varied section.
At the beginning of Book II of the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle says the following: Virtue, then, being of two kinds, intellectual and moral, intellectual virtue in the main owes both its birth and its growth to teaching (for which reason it requires experience and time), while moral virtue comes about as a result of habit, whence also its name.
The virtue approach to business ethics is a topic of increasing importance within the business world. Focusing on Aristotle's theory that the virtues of character, rather than actions, are central.